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KIDNEY

 

  • The kidneys are a pair of bean shaped organs on either side of spine below the ribs.
  • Kidneys are the part of urinary system. Each kidney is about 4 or 5 inches long, average the size of the first.
  • Kidneys help to balance body fluids and electrolytes. Electrolytes are essential minerals that include sodium and potassium.

Function of kidney:

  • Remove waste Products from the body.
  • Balances body fluids.
  • Remove medicinal effect from the body
  • Release hormones that regulate blood pressure.
  • Filters the blood
  •  Control production of red blood cells
  •  Control acid base balance of blood
  • Produce active form of vitamin D that promotes strong, healthy bones.
  • Calcitriol is a form of Vitamin D.

Tips to be followed for healthy kidney:

  •  No smoking, tobacco
  •  Cutting out excess salt, which can affect the balance of minerals in the blood.
  •  Drinking water
  • Daily exercise, to reduce blood pressure
  • Limiting the use of NSAIDS (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)
  • Healthy weight
  • Monitoring blood pressure and blood sugar.

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 KIDNEY STONES

  • Kidney stones are the hard stone like tiny crystals made up of minerals and salts  on the interior surface of the kidney, where urine leaves
  • the kidney tissue and enters the urinary tract system.
  • Kidney stones also called as renal calculi, nephrolithiasis, urolithiasis.
  • Urine has various wastes dissolved in it, when there
  • is too much waste into little liquid, crystal begins to form. The stone forming chemical are calcium oxalate, urate, cystine, xanthine and phosphate.
  •  The stone may stay in kidney or travel down the urinary tract into the ureter. Sometimes tiny stones move out of the body in the urine without causing too much pain.
  • But stones that don't move may cause a backup of urine in the kidney, ureter, bladder or urethra, this causes severe pain.

Symptoms:

  • Severe pain on either side of the lower back.
  •  more vague pain or stomachache that doesn't go away.
  • blood in the urine
  • nausea or vomiting
  • fever and chills
  •  urine that smells or looks cloudy

Do's:

  • Drinking water
  • Eat more fruits and vegetables
  • Include Horse gram in diet
  • Less salt diets.

Don'ts:

  • High protein diet specially
  • animal protein and fat.
  • Packed food, fat, fried food.
  • Sodas, sweetened beverages, alcohol.
  • Salty snacks

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CYSTITIS

  • Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder.
  • It is the most common type of urinary tract infection.
  • It may be milder, resolves itself, but repeated infection may cause kidney infection.
  • Cystitis usually occurs when bacteria enter urethra and bladder.
  • Cystitis can affect anyone irrespective of sex or age. But more common in females.

Drug induced cystitis

    Few medications can irritate the bladder as they exit the body.

 Bacterial Cystitis:

Most common cystitis caused by bacteria.

 Radiation cystitis:

   Radiation can shrink tumors and kill cancer cells also damage healthy cells causing cystitis.

 Foreign body cystitis

    Catheter, stent and endoscopic instruments can cause cystitis.

Chemical cystitis:

Cystitis results from some treatment such as chemotherapy agent, soap , gel , dye etc.

Symptoms:

  • Pain or a burning sensation feeling while passing urine.
  • Passing frequent, small amount of urine.
  • A strong persistent urge to urinate.
  • Hematuria (blood in the urine)
  • Passing cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
  • Pelvic discomfort
  • Low grade fever
  • A feeling of pressure in the lower abdomen
  •  General aches, weakness, tiredness
  • Lack of appetite
  • dark and cloudy urine

Do's:

  • Drinking plenty of water
  • Personal hygiene for washroom
  • Emptying bladder completely
  •  fruits and vegetables intake

Don'ts:

  • Holding urine for long time
  • Tight clothes
  • Unhygienic
  • Strong soaps

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 URINARY TRACT INFECTION

  • UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) is an Infection in any part of the urinary system, part of urinary system includes kidney, bladder, ureters and urethra.
  • Women are at the risk of developing UTI.
  • If  Infection is limited to bladder, it will be painful, but if UTI spreads to the kidney, it will cause serious health problem.

 Symptoms

  • A burning micturition
  • Frequent urination, passing small amount of urine.
  • Strong urge to pass urine
  • Dark red, bright pink colored urine indicates blood in urine
  • Lower back ache
  • Lower abdomen pain

 Types of UTIS

  • Symptoms depends on which part of urinary tract is affected
  • kidneys- Back or side       pain, High fever, chills, nausea, vomiting.
  • Bladder- Pelvic pressure, lower belly discomfort, frequent urination.
  •  Urethra- Burning micturition.

 Do's:

  • Drinking plenty of water
  • Fruits and vegetables intake
  • Use clean washrooms
  • Hygiene

Don'ts:

  • Fat, fried, spicy food
  • Lack of exercise
  • Using dirty washroom
  • Smoking, alcohol

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POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DESEASE

  • Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder. In PKD cluster of fluid filled cysts
  • develop with in kidney, causing kidneys to enlarge and loss of function over time.
  • Cysts are non-cancerous, they vary in size, can grow very large and development of large cysts can damage kidneys.
  • Polycystic kidney disease causes cysts in liver, cause high blood pressure and kidney failure.

Causes:

  • Due to gene mutation defect, a child may get the PKD, due to gene mutation from parent.
  • In few cases the gene mutation develops on its own.

Symptoms:

  • Headache
  • High blood pressure
  • Back pain or side pain
  • Blood in urine
  • Feeling of fullness in abdomen
  • Increased size of abdomen due to enlarged kidneys.
  • Urinary tract infection

Types of polycystic kidney disease:

1.  Autosomal dominant PKD(ADPKD)

This commonly develop between the age of 30 and 40. So called as adult pkd, but children may)) also develop.

 2. Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD)

This type is far less common than ADPKD. Signs and symptoms often develop after birth. Both parents must have abnormal genes to pass this to child.

Do's:

  • If person having H/O PKD, want to plan child, should take a help of genetic counselor to prevent the risk of passing disease to offspring.
  • maintain normal blood pressure
  • low salt diet
  • Fresh fruits and vegetables intake
  • Healthy weight
  • Walking 30 min daily
  • Don'ts:
  • Alcohol
  • Smoking
  • coffee, tea, soda, beverages
  • Salty food
  • Obesity

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 CHRONIC KIDNEY DESEASE

Chronic kidney disease is a gradual loss of kidney function.

Kidneys filter water, excess fluid from the blood, which are excreted in urine, chronic kidney disease cause high levels of fluid, electrolytes and wastes build up in body.

Causes:

  •  Diabetes - Uncontrolled blood sugar
  • High blood pressure
  • Glomerulonephritis (diseases that cause inflammation and damage the kidneys filtering units).
  •  Genetic diseases (polycystic kidney disease)
  • Urinary tract abnormalities

 Symptoms:

  • Feel more tired and have less energy
  •  Trouble sleeping
  • poor appetite
  •  Muscle cramps
  • nausea, vomiting
  •  dry itchy skin
  • swelling of foot and ankle
  •  high blood pressure
  • shortness of breath

 Do's:

  • Maintain healthy weight
  • Fresh fruits and vegetables intake
  • Daily exercise
  • Low salt diet

Don'ts:

  • Smoking
  • Alcohol
  • Tinned food
  • Salty snacks
  • Fatty, fried food

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 URINARY INCONTINENCE

  • Urinary incontinence is the loss of control over bladder.
  • The muscles supporting your bladder gradually weaken, that lead to Urinary incontinence.
  • Many health issues also cause urinary incontinence like kidney stones, infection, enlarged prostate etc.

Symptoms:

  • Occasional or minor urine leakage
  • Some may lose small to moderate amount of urine frequently

Types:

  •  Stress incontinence
  •       Caused by certain type of physical activity like might lose control over bladder while doing exercise, coughing, sneezing, laughing.
  • Urge incontinence
  •       This type occurs when you lose control of your bladder after experiencing a sudden and strong urge to urinate.
  • Overflow incontinence
  •       This type can occur if you don't completely empty your bladder when you urinate, later remaining urine may leak from your bladder called as dribbling.
  •  Functional incontinence
  •     Functional incontinence is caused by physical or mental barriers that may prevent someone from making it to bathroom in time, also may be due to cognitive issues such as dementia, arthritis or neurological problems like stroke or spinal cord injury.

Do's:

  • Maintain healthy weight
  • Proper exercise
  • Eat balanced diet

Don'ts:

  • Coffee, tea, soda beverages
  • Alcohol
  • Smoking
  •  Common oral problems